Dans le bouddhisme, le Bouddha Shakyamuni méditait dans un bois de sals près de Kusināgar au moment de son parinirvana (sa mort physique)[2], et son corps aurait été recouvert de leurs fleurs. Its name shala, shaal or sal, comes from Sanskrit (शाल, śāla, literally "house"), a name that suggests it for housing timber; other names in the Sanskrit language are ashvakarna, chiraparna and sarja, among many others. Sal (tree) (Shorea robusta), from the Indian subcontinent; Saharan Air Layer, or SAL; Salivary lipocalin, or SAL, the pig major urinary protein homologue; Sterility assurance level, or SAL, in microbiology; Transportation. [7] The tree is widely distributed in tropical regions and covers about 13.3% of the forested area in the country. Sal forest covers about 45% of their forested areas. The trunk is clean, straight and cylindrical, often bearing epicormic branches. The Yakshis or Yakshinis (Sanskrit : याक्षिणि), mythical maiden deities of Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain mythology are closely associated with trees, especially the ashoka tree and the sal tree. Rubber Fig or Rubber Plant-- Ficus elastica. Cette section est vide, insuffisamment détaillée ou incomplète. The plant belongs to the Dipterocarpaceae botanical family. Dans le jaïnisme, le culte des arbres est important et très ancien. Across these three states some 20-30 million forest dwellers depend on collection of sal seeds, leaves and resins. The Yakshis or Yakshinis (Sanskrit: याक्षिणि), mythical maiden deities of Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain mythology are closely associated with trees, especially the ashoka tree and the sal tree.Although these tree deities are usually benevolent, there are also yakshinis with malevolent characteristics in Indian folklore. The bark is dark brown and thick, with longitudinal fissures deep in poles, becoming shallow in mature trees, and provides effective fire protection. Leaves are simple, shiny, about 10–25 cm (3.9–9.8 in) long and broadly oval at the base, with the apex tapering into a long point. It is a medicinal tree, and used in Ayurveda for thousands of years to treat variety of diseases including piles, leucorrhoea, gonorrhea, skin disorders, ulcers, wounds, diarrhea, dysentery, burning sensation, seminal weakness, etc. Shorea robusta seed oil is an edible oil extracted from the seeds of Shorea robusta. Sal est le nom porté par : le sal, un arbre originaire d'Asie du Sud-Est ; un fleuve de Russie, affluent du Don par la rive gauche ; le Sal, ou rivière du Bono, un cours d'eau du Morbihan ; Sal, une île du Cap-Vert, et la seule municipalit é qui s'y trouve ; Sal signifie également « sel » en portugais et en espagnol ; Sal, un film de James Franco consacré à Sal Mineo. The Salvatore Family is one of the Founding Families in the series. [citation needed], SEAHandBook=2009,By The Solvent Extractors' Association of India, "Sal Tree, Biological name of the Sal Tree, Sal Tree Plantations in India", https://web.archive.org/web/20131109205555/http://www.worldagroforestry.org/treedb2/AFTPDFS/Shorea_robusta.pdf, "Sal tree forest- Shantiniketan | Nativeplanet Video", Shorea robusta – an excellent host tree for lichen growth in India, "Sal Seed Solvent Extraction Plant - Supplied Oil Mill Machinery", "Sal Fat - Shorea Robusta Fat, Cocoa Butter Equivalent, Food and Chocolates", https://web.archive.org/web/20130211065905/http://jhamfcofed.com/resources/sal_seed.htm, http://upscguide.com/content/timber-trees-india, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shorea_robusta_seed_oil&oldid=970331419, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 July 2020, at 17:48. In local languages it is called salwa, sakhu, sakher, shal, kandar and sakwa. Due to the presence of more saturated fatty acids, it is solid at room temperature. Excess moisture (>6-8%) damages oil quality via Hydrolysis in the seed fat, with resulting high free fatty acid oil output. [6], This species ranges south of the Himalaya, from Myanmar in the east to Nepal, India and Bangladesh. The de-winged seeds contain a thin, brittle seed pod. The tree develops a long taproot at a young age. Salvatore "Sal" Murdocca (born April 26, 1943) is an American children's book illustrator. Shorea robusta or Sal tree is a large, deciduous tree found in India, Myanmar, and Nepal. It is widely grown in the foothills of the Himalayas. Under normal conditions they reach 18–32 m (59–105 ft) with girths of 1.5–2 m (4 ft 11 in–6 ft 7 in). Salvatore Mineo Jr. (January 10, 1939 – February 12, 1976) was an American actor, singer, and director. He is best known as Sal Murdocca, illustrator of the Magic Tree House series written by Mary Pope Osborne (from 1992) and the nonfiction Magic Tree House Fact Checkers by Osborne and collaborators (from 2000)—about 50 and 30 volumes respectively to 2014. The extracted crude sal oil/fat is greenish-brown and has a characteristic odour. On le trouve également dans les Ghāts orientaux. Its botanical family is dipterocarpaceae. Cultivation methods : Sal tree requires well drained, moist and sandy loam soil. …dark brown durable timber; and sal (Shorea robusta), an East Indian timber tree with foliage providing food for lac insects (which deposit lac, a resinous substance used for the manufacture of shellac and varnishes, on the tree’s twigs). Il avait franchi une première étape de sa vie d'ascète sous un arbre d'Ashoka. Shorea robusta is known as the Sal tree in India. Sal River (India), Goa; Sal River (Russia) Arts and entertainment. Sal (tree) (Shorea robusta), from the Indian subcontinent; Saharan Air Layer, or SAL; Salivary lipocalin, or SAL, the pig major urinary protein homologue; Sterility assurance level, or SAL, in microbiology Fruit at full size is about 1.3–1.5 cm (0.51–0.59 in) long and 1 cm (0.39 in) in diameter; it is surrounded by segments of the calyx enlarged into 5 rather unequal wings about 5–7.5 cm (2.0–3.0 in) long. Soil moisture is essential.[4]. En Inde, sa localisation s'étend de l'est de la Yamuna à l'Assam, au Bengale et au Jharkhand. The most favourable soil is a moist sandy loam with good subsoil drainage. Sal is indigenous to India and occurs in two main regions separated by the Gangetic Plain, namely the northern and central Indian regions. The Gangetic Plain separate the Himalayan foothill from the central Indian belt.[8]. Shorea robusta seed oil is an edible oil extracted from the seeds of Shorea robusta. La ramure sert de fourrage et permet de joncher le sol des étables ou des écuries. Traditionally fat is extracted by water rendering. In Nepal, it is found mostly in the Terai region from east to west, especially, in the Sivalik Hills(Ch… Dans ces régions, il constitue l'arbre le plus courant dans les forêts. The mean annual temperature required is between 22–27 °C (72–81 °F) and 34–47 °C (93–117 °F). The kernel has 5 segments covering the embryo. The tree grows at 100–1,500 m (330–4,920 ft) altitude. Sal tree grows in North East and Central India up to 1700 meter elevation. [13] Sal butter is used in the manufacturing of edible ghee (vanaspati), paints and pigments, lubricants, auto oil, etc. [9] The proper storage of seeds before processing is crucial. The refined oil is used as substitute for cocoa butter in chocolate manufacturing. [1] The plant belongs to the Dipterocarpaceae botanical family. Les croyants ayant atteint le nirvana et qui sont rentrés dans l'imagerie populaire sont souvent représentés sous un arbre, un sal par exemple[3]. https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sal_(plante)&oldid=173064440, Taxobox utilisant la classification APG III, Article avec une section vide ou incomplète, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Portail:Religions et croyances/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Lors de sa création, Sybase SQL Server hérite des principes du moteur Ingres développé à l'origine par l'université de Berkeley. La résine de sal est utilisée comme encens dans des cérémonies hindoues. Sal fat is extracted via three methods. It is often the dominant tree in the forests where it occurs. Sal is a major means of survival for forest dwellers in the Central Indian states of Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. Le sal ou sāla (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) On utilise ses graines et ses fruits comme source d'huile (pour les lampes) et de graisse végétale. Sal (Shorea robusta) tree occurs either gregariously or mixed with other trees in Himalayan foot hills and central India. It has calyx and wings. On the Mahābhārat Range, at … Sal (tree) (Shorea robusta), from the Indian subcontinent; Saharan Air Layer, or SAL; Sterility assurance level, or SAL, in microbiology; Transportation. [5] Fruit content is 66.4% kernel and pod, 33.6% is shell and calyx. S. robusta flourishes best in deep, well-drained, moist, slightly acid, sandy to clayey soils. The third method is via solvent extraction in which the seed is pressed as flakes first in a flaker mill and exposed to solvent extraction.[10]. Sources: Common Trees of India, Pippa Mukherjee, World Wildlife Fund India/ Oxford University Press 1983, Flowering Trees … Sal is indigenous to India and occurs in two main regions separated by the Gangetic Plain, namely the northern and central Indian regions. Le Tirthankara Mahāvīra, une des figures majeures de cette religion a reçu l'illumination sous un sal. Dans les zones les plus humides, le sal garde ses feuilles tout au long de l'année, tandis qu'il perd la plupart de celles-ci dans les zones plutôt sèches, entre les mois de février et avril, pour constituer un nouveau feuillage d'avril à mai. On le trouve également dans les Ghāts orientaux. Sal tree also known as Shorea robusta is commonly found in all parts of India and holds a special religious significance. The oil contains 35-45% stearic acid, an 18-carbon saturated fatty acid, and 40-45% oleic acid, which is a mono unsaturated fatty acid, with 18 carbon atoms. Orissa has the largest sal forest, covering 38,300 km2 (14,800 sq mi) followed by Madhya Pradesh with 27,800 km2 (10,700 sq mi) and Chhattisgarh with 24,245 km2 (9,361 sq mi). Refined, modified fat is a substitute for cocoa butter and used in confectionery industry. Le bois est résineux et durable, et n'est pas très adapté au polissage et à la menuiserie fine. The fruits generally ripen in May. The seeds are 10.8% water, 8% protein, 62.7% carbohydrate, 14.8% oil, 1.4% fiber and 2.3% ash. The oil is used as cooking oil after refining. Flowers are yellowish-white, arranged in large terminal or axillary racemose panicles. En Inde, sa localisation s'étend de l'est de la Yamuna à l'Assam, au Bengale et au Jharkhand. These three states include the country's largest sal belt. Sal (Shorea robusta) is a tall handsome tree providing very good quality timber. 5 ] fruit content is 66.4 % kernel and pod, 33.6 % is shell and calyx 9 the. 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